Photography Basics: Aperture II

In the first post about aperture we saw what aperture is, how we describe it and how we can use it in a technical way. Now it’s time for a little bit of composition and practice. If you have already read the last post, you will remember that we ended with a question:

Why would I want to reduce the aperture of my lens and let less light to reach the sensor?

If we stop to think about it, at first glance it doesn’t make much sense. If you ask any experienced photographer about their opinion about light, there is one single concept in which every one of them will completely agree: There is never enough of it. Of course, you can have enough to take a good picture, but if you just had a slightly little tiny bit more… you could try to increase the quality a little bit more. And of course, even if you just had that tiny bit more, you might always wish for more and more. This is because photographing consists in painting with light and after that capturing it. Having more light is like, for example, having more colors when painting with oleum.

To understand why we would want to reduce the aperture of the lens, first we need to understand how focusing works. When we focus on the target of our picture, in fact we are focusing only on a plane located at the focusing distance chosen. Any point just in front or behind the plane will be out of focus, and the further away the point is of the plane, the more blurred will appear. Here, the circle of confusion appears in scene. The circle of confusion is the maximum size a spot can have with our brain interpreting it as a point and not as a spot. It is a complex variable that depends on many parameters, but the important concept is that if a spot is smaller than the circle of confusion our brain will assume it is a single point. So, when we focus on something, not only the plane, but all the area in front and behind it that is less blurred than the circle of confusion will appear as if it was focused to us. This area is what we call the depth of field.

The key point in this explanation is simple now: the more wide open we have our lens to take our pictures, the less depth of field we will have. And this explains why we would like to increase the f number in our picture. If we want, for example, to take a picture of a landscape, containing perhaps a few trees close to us, a river in the middle distances and a mountain near the horizon, we probably want to be everything on focus. If we try to take that picture with a diaphragm fully opened the depth of field won’t be enough to cover all the distance and something will appear out of focus. Closing the diaphragm will eventually increase the depth of field up to a point when it covers all the distance intended.

But this is not always the desired effect. For example, if we are making a portrait, having a very sharp background might confuse the viewer, whose sight might wonder around the background instead of focusing on the face as they both catch the eye attraction. In this case what we desire is to isolate the model from the background, blurring the background into soft shapes while keeping the face sharp. For this purpose we will use a low f value.

Narrow aperture

This little fella wants to spend his money in a portrait. A narrow aperture gives too much importance to the background (the depth of field extends too much behind our target), and the leprechaun doesn’t feel special. The photographer won’t see his money for such a poor work. [100 mm; 13 s.; f/13; ISO 200]

Wide aperture

The photographer read about the depth of field and understood that he had to use a wide aperture. Now the leprechaun is isolated from the background, and the good fella is eager to spend his money on more photographs. Everybody is happy! [100 mm; 1/4 s.; f/2.8; ISO 200]

Aperture comparison

In this case, the photographer wanted to show not only the leprechaun, but also the danger behind him. Choosing a wide aperture fails to show the desired details, which are important in this case. The poor leprechaun on the left side doesn’t see the zombie coming and dies eaten by him. Nobody sees his money again. That’s why in this situation the narrow aperture is more important. [Left: 100 mm; 1/4 s.; f/2.8; ISO 200. Right: 100 mm; 25 s.; f/25; ISO 200]

Closing the aperture has also other effects. As it limits the amount of light, we will need to decrease the shutter speed, and if low enough speeds are used we might capture the trail of a moving element. On the contrary, opening the aperture will increase the amount of light and we will be forced to use higher shutter speeds, which leads to freezing the action. As you can see, both of them are valid situation and is the composition and the style you have in your mind who will dictate which configuration is better in each situation (if not both).

Holy Week III

In this picture, taken at night, the illumination is very dim. Although the lens can open up to f/1.4 an aperture of f/3.2 is used instead. Increasing the depth of field makes focusing easier in a very dynamic scenario where the point of interest lasts for very few seconds and requires a fast reaction.  Closing the aperture implies using a slow shutter speed (1/40 s) which is not fast enough to freeze de censer that the girl is moving, becoming blurred and capturing its movement. [50 mm; 1/40 s.; f/3.2; ISO 2000]

Another effect of aperture, in this case at high apertures, is called bokeh. Bokeh happens when in a situation of moderate lightning we have punctual sources of light in our background. As they are out of focus they will appear as very big and soft points, and as they emit a lot of light compared to the ambient lightning, they will highlight compared to the surroundings. The effect is visually and aesthetically very pleasing. Also, a punctual source of light doesn’t have to be a small light, for example, the direct sunlight filtered through the leaves of a tree behind the face of a model under the shadow of the tree is a perfect source of lightning for a bokeh (just go outside and try it!). Also, at night, the street lights, traffic lights, car lights and even some other sources may form a colorful bokeh full of applications.

Finally, a few words about diffraction are worth mentioning. As stated before, the more we close our lens, the best sharpness we will get, as increasing the depth of field makes the focusing be more tolerant with little errors and wide areas will be most likely covered. But this happens only up to a point, different in every lens. Reached that point, the light will start to bend when it passes through the tiny hole, and this will star to blur the picture, even in the best focused part. This is an inevitable effect, caused by the own nature of the light. This doesn’t mean that we shouldn’t use tiny apertures, it is good to use them as long as you have a good reason to use them (technically or artistically), as it is there to be used, but having in mind that it means a little trade with quality, which sometimes might be important, and sometimes might be unnoticed.

Effect of diffraction at low apertures

Detail of an incense box. The one on the left is taken at the sweet spot of the lens (the point of best quality trade between depth of field and diffraction), the one on the right is taken with the lowest possible aperture. The details on the left are sharp and clear while the details in the right picture, although correctly focused, show a blurred contour, more noticeable on the text (not fully visible on the reduced view. Right click and “show image” to see it larger. [Left: 100 mm; 0.8 s.; f/5.6; ISO 200. Right: 100 mm; 25 s.; f/32; ISO 200]

After all this explanation, now you are ready to go out there and try everything on your own. Why not trying to photograph the same subject with different angles and apertures looking for the best result? Or perhaps searching for a good place to try bokeh? Try, practice, and comment if you find any question or suggestion you might think about, or just to share a couple of pictures you have taken after reading and trying all of this. That’s the key for getting better and better pictures every day.

Sharp focus for the sharp eye

One of the most important systems in an actual digital camera is the autofocus (AF). In any recent cameras, even on the simpler ones, this is one of the most complex characteristic to use well. For most of the newcomers to the photography world autofocus is just as simple (and wrong) as half pushing a button and wait for a blink or beep confirmation. Then they take the picture without even analyzing if the focus was really achieved where it was supposed to. Even for the more experienced photographers, after checking the point and taking the picture surprises may arise, as sometimes focus is not exactly where it was supposed to… Perhaps not very displaced but just enough to transform a great picture into a mediocre one.

In order to achieve a better focus on important pictures, some tricks are worth knowing. Here is a little review of some of them.

 

You, Live View, my dear friend

Even if we tend to think that the most precise way of achieving focus is using the autofocus, it happens that one of the most precise ways to have a great focusing is using the manual mode… As long as your camera supports it (many compact cameras don’t), and you have a tripod or other stable surface to put the camera, and also a camera supporting Live View Mode, and time enough to play with the camera, and a still target… Too many “ands”, right? But it’s worth the effort.

Live view allows us to preview the image we are going to take before actually taking it. In fact, it can usually also predict the final exposition and other post-effects. This is a very handy tool because it can also magnify the image (perhaps by 2, perhaps by 10) on screen. Once you have the camera and target still on their place it is rather easy to focus on the right spot just using the live view as a guide and gently turning the focus ring on the lens. The extra magnification provided by the Live View Mode increases the precision as you will see the spot much larger than the real size. This way you can focus on the exact place you desire.

This is a very convenient way of focusing on studio, photographing still life, as nothing will move and you will have enough time to play with focusing. In this kind of photography quality is a necessity, as they are usually used for catalogs, fine art photography or perhaps illustrations for books. In any case, the increase on quality is usually an important request that a bad focus can ruin.

Another place where this trick is really useful is in nocturnal photography, perhaps stars or perhaps a still object in a very low light environment. In these cases the low light conditions imply that the autofocus won’t receive enough light to do its job. If you are taking a picture of the sky: focus on the brightest star on the firmament (even if it isn’t your desired target, the star will be almost at “infinite distance”, just as any other object in the sky, you just have to recompose after that). If you are photographing an object: aim for the most illuminated part. If the illumination is not enough you can use a small flashlight as a test light while you focus, or perhaps a laser pointer (the laser pointer is great even for the stars, as long as it is not very powerful; less than 10 mW is safe, never try with more than 20 mW).

Stadtflucht Lindabrunn

Example of how a low power laser pointer can create a point on the surface of interest that allows for a simple focusing on low lightning conditions. (Picture by Christian Benke)

 

Hold the shake

Sometimes the focus is good and all seems nicely configured, but still the picture is blurred and not perfectly sharp. If the entire image shows this pattern the focus is not the problem, as the lack of focus blurs on one point but another one must be sharp. The problem is motion blur. Motion blur can happen, amongst others, for two reasons: The shutter is making the camera tremble when is actioned, or the lens is moving while the sensor is exposed.

The first situation happens when using a not-too-fast and no-too-slow shutter speed, between 0.3 and 5 seconds approximately. In this range, when the shutter is triggered, the mirror flips so the light can reach the sensor, and this sudden movement can make the camera vibrate. To avoid this problem, a function called mirror-lockup is recommended. When activated, the first time you push the button the mirror will flip, and the second time the sensor gets exposed. To avoid moving the camera while pressing the button a remote trigger is recommended (if you don’t have one it’s the first accessory you should get, they are relatively cheap and very handy). If you don’t have a remote trigger, activate the countdown: the mirror will flip and start counting and the camera will have a few seconds to stabilize before taking the picture.

The second situation is more subtle. Sometimes, when a lens has a stabilizer, it will try to stabilize the picture even if the camera is completely still. Trying to compensate something that is not there makes the system mad and it shakes a little bit trying to find the movement; this shake blurs the picture. This doesn’t happen on all lenses, many stabilizers nowadays are smart enough to detect that there is no movement and just enter in stand-by mode, but it can happen. The solution is very simple: If you are working with a tripod or other stable surface, just turn off the stabilizer. Even if your lens is of the smart kind it won’t do any bad.

 

Stand still laddie!

Sometimes the motion blur is not caused by the camera itself, but by the photographer. When the shutter speed is longer than the actual focal length of the lens, blur movement is likely to happen due to the small involuntary movements we all do. Avoiding this for very long shutter speeds is difficult, but when moving on the frontier speeds trying to stabilize ourselves might help.

Try to relax while taking the picture, open your feet a little bit and get sure they are completely stable on the ground. Sometimes the position can help: if you have a wall try to put at least one side of the camera against it as a support, and if you don’t, try to make a “surface” with one of your arms and rest the camera on it, controlling it with the free hand (like the way they shoot pistols and Tommy guns on old gangster films).

Also breathing control can help. Instead of just breathing normal, try to make a couple of deep, intense breaths. After exhaling the second time just don’t inhale again and press the trigger. The inhalations will oxygenate your blood enough for a few seconds, and not inhaling again will slow down a little bit your heart. This will minimize the movement you get from your pulse and breathing for an instant, giving you an opportunity to take a better picture.

Photographing the Cherry Blossoms

The heavier the camera, the easier it will be to hold it stable in our hands. Don’t be afraid of adding an external flash, a grip or a heavy lens. Holding it with both hands also increases stability dramatically and reduces the blur-motion. (Picture by Susanne Nilsson)

 

I’m cold, I’m wet and I just want to go home!

Finally, if nothing of the above is applicable, you are in an unpleasant place or simply just tired and willing to finish and go home, remember some of the rules that apply to any camera: Closing the aperture will increase the length of field, decreasing the chances of not getting the focus on a good enough place. Increasing the shutter speed will reduce the chances of motion blur (at least the one produced by your movement, and reducing the blur caused by the target being on movement) and a high sensibility will favor both of the parameters above (but you pay in a noisier picture). You can also use a test light to achieve focus in case illumination is not enough for the autofocus to work well.

First Person Shooter in the Rain

Bad weather can be a challenge for a photographer, especially on long sessions. Always wear good protection against water or cold and do it with the help of an assistant if possible. Trying to achieve precision in hard conditions without proper equipment is a recipe for disaster. (Picture by Thomas Hawk)

 

Do you know any other tricks that might be interesting? Just tell in the comments! Perhaps they can be included in the next post about tricks.

The Pearl of Japan (Reprise)

The Pearl of Japan (Reprise)
I have just released a new picture. This one is from my archive, taken on February 21st, 2016. The original picture, released a couple of months ago, depicted the same girl just in another pose, more stylish. This version was left behind until today.

This is from the Carnival parade in my city, and this girl, and many other that accompanied her, were dressed as geishas, dancing along the street. One of the interesting points of the costume is the bright and catchy color, based in gold and aquamarine, so it was maintained on the original one. On this reprise, on the contrary, I have decided to go on black and white on purpose. The trade is to lose the power the color offers to capture the attention in exchange of emphasizing the contrast on the details, as the pearls of the dress or the figures on the hair ribbon. Those details were more subtle on the original one, as they were close in tone instead of far in luminosity, like now. Also, high contrast black and white makes the face and makeup of the girl stronger and shaper, with more detail, increasing the realistic character of the picture.

The smile and the hand position of the girl increase the overall appealing of the picture, offering a positive mood to the viewer. The bright tones of the background also fit in this mood. It’s a clear and sharp image that transmits the happiness of the moment.

This picture is posted on my account on Flickr, 500px and Instagram. Do you like it? You can comment here or in any of the accounts and transmit me your impressions and ideas. They’re always welcome.

Photography Basics: Aperture I

Coming from an automatized world where we are used to take fast pictures in automatic mode with our phones or compact cameras, the first time we try to approach to manual mode can result in an overwhelming experience: we change from using just one button to take the picture to a full set of options that we barely know how to manage. However, explaining each parameter one by one, without interference of the others, can lead to a very easy understanding of how each of them affects the overall image. To start with the basics of exposure we are going to talk about aperture, as the first parameter every photographer should be able to understand in order to get better and more creative images.

The aperture of a lens is the central space, filled with the glass pieces that form it, that allows the light to pass to the sensor. It is one of the most important parameters in artistic photography and one of the three parameters that determine the exposition of the final picture (being the other two the shutter speed and the sensitivity of the sensor). In the “real world” we tend to refer to the aperture as the area of the circle that allows the light to pass, but “photographically” we will see a more interesting way of representing it.

The maximum aperture in a lens is the one that allows the light to pass without obstruction to the sensor. It’s a characteristic value of the lens that represents how fast the lens is (the maximum aperture of a lens is usually printed in the front of it, next to the focal length): the greater the maximum aperture is, the more light the sensor receives and higher shutter speeds we will be able to reach with a correct exposure. It is obvious that in a low light environment we will want the lens that most light can capture, although many times other factors, as price or weight, can be the real limiters, as the faster a lens is, the more expensive and heavy it gets.

The maximum aperture of the lens is determined by its construction and cannot be changed, but what we can do is to reduce the aperture of the lens. The piece that makes this possible is the diaphragm, which is a device composed of 5-18 blades that can fit together to form a circle of lower area than the maximum aperture. If we reduce the area to the half, we will allow half the light to reach the sensor. The diaphragm can close to get lower and lower apertures until a point where it occludes all the available space.

Diaphragm lens

Diaphragm on a Korinar 35 mm lens closed to f/16.

Measuring the area of the circle is tedious and little practical, so in photography we use the f number to refer to the aperture. The f number represents a relationship between the diameter of the current aperture (D, in millimeters) and the focal length of the lens (F, also in millimeters; the focal length is what many people call “the zoom”). In mathematical terms, it is expressed as:

f = F/D

This means that in a 100 mm lens an f value of f/4 gives an aperture of 25 mm in diameter, and an f number of f/2 gives an aperture of 50 mm in diameter.

Because the relationship between the diameter and the area of the circle is quadratic (the diameter is squared), doubling the f number doesn’t reduce the light to the half, but to one fourth of it (two squared). So if we have an aperture of f/2 and we want to half the light we will have to multiply the number by the square root of 2, which results in f/2.8 (2.8 = 2 · √2), and not by two. This gives us the following values as a guide, assuming we start counting on 1 (if necessary, you can calculate the f numbers on the left of the 1 by dividing successively by √2), each one of them representing half the illumination of the one on its left:

1 1.4 2 2.8 4 5.6 8 11 16 22 32

2000px-aperture_diagram-svg

Image by Cbuckley (Wikipedia)

Each one of these values is called a stop. If we advance one stop to the right we are letting half of the light to pass. Advancing two stops means that we cut the light to one quarter. The advantage of this method is that the aperture is standardized, as it is given as a relationship with the focal length. This means that an f/8 aperture gives exactly the same amount of light on any lens in any focal length. It doesn’t matter if you are using a brand new 200 mm or a 35 mm from your grandparents’ first camera, an f/8 means always the same amount of light.

In order to fine tune the aperture, usually the cameras allow us to set halves or thirds of stop, being the thirds the more common and precise. The numbers in this case can be a little bit odd but working with them is easy in practice. If we have the camera configured in thirds mode, every time you turn the dial one “click” to set the aperture you are moving a third of stop, so every three clicks you are doubling or halving the aperture. The same applies to a camera configured in halves, but with only two clicks instead of three.

A simple example: We have achieved the right exposition for a scene with a 50 mm lens using a shutter speed of 1/100 s and f/4. If we wanted to take the same picture with a 100 mm lens and a slower shutter speed of 1/25 s, what would be the correct aperture to set? First of all, as we are using f values, the focal length of our lens doesn’t matter at all and we can forget about it. According to our exposition time, we are passing from 1/100 to 1/25 of second. If we divide 1/25 between 1/100 yields a result of 4, which means that we have doubled our exposition time twice. Another way to see it is that in a thirds configured camera we have to take 6 “clicks” to get from 1/100 to 1/25 (3 clicks to double from 1/100 to 1/50 and another 3 clicks to double from 1/50 to 1/25). As we have doubled our shutter speed twice (we have multiplied the amount of entering light by 4) we have to correct the aperture in the same amount to reduce the excess of light, going from f/4 to f/5.6 (one stop) and from f/5.6 to f/8 (two stops); or in clicks three clicks to get to f/5.6 and another three to get to f/8. As we see, knowing if the camera works in full increments, halves o thirds is usually enough to calculate the best aperture knowing the correct exposition for the picture we have in front of us.

Now that we know how the aperture affects the exposition and how to use it the question that arises is: Why would I want to reduce the aperture of my lens and let less light to reach the sensor? The answer will be the topic of the next post, in which we will see the effects of changing aperture maintaining the correct exposition.

Moonrise

I’m starting the section of picture analysis with one of my most recent work. This picture dates from 24 March 2016 and was taken in a water reservoir near my city. The original plan was to photograph a near iron bridge at dusk, but after the sunset other opportunities arose. So I guess the first lesson in this blog is: keep your eyes wide open to catch any opportunities that might happen, even if you didn’t planned for them. The picture is titled “Soon after the moonrise”, and you can click on them to enlarge:

Soon after the moonriseJT5D2964 moonrise II_EDIT copia

As you can see, this is a typical landscape shot, in which you can see a fragment of the river that leads to the reservoir, with the horizon behind and the sky filling the rest of the picture. So… Which is the element that makes the picture special? In this case is the illumination, provided by the moon and partially diffused by a thin strip of cloud. We are used to see landscapes with sunlight, which is very rich in yellow tones that make green and yellow very outstanding. The trick here is to change the illumination to a dim global and bluish light, which makes it feel much colder that it really was, and very different to the way that what we are used to see it.

Lets begin with the technical part.

In order to get this picture a tripod is always needed. A picture taken at night, even with full moon (which is the case), is a situation of very low light available. If we want to keep the sensibility of the sensor in a low value to avoid noise we will have to increase our exposure time to the order of seconds. In this case, the picture was taken using ISO 1000 (an acceptable noise level for a Canon 5D mkIII) 10 seconds of exposure and an aperture of f/5.6.

Increasing the exposure time could have been an option to reduce the noise of the picture. The decision of setting it only to 10 seconds is to avoid capturing the movement of the stars (#3). For this picture I wanted them to appear still, as points, instead of trails, so increasing the time would have been risky as we are already moving in the threshold times. Also, the aperture could have been increased up to f/4, but working on f/5.6 grants me more quality as I am working on the sweet spot of my lens. Having into account that the noise level at ISO 1000 is fairly good on the camera the parameters are a reasonable choice. If, on the contrary, we had to take the picture with a noisier camera reducing ISO would be necessary for a clean shot and star trails or a bit less of sharpness would be the price to pay.

Another point to have in mind while taking night pictures is the moon. Because moon rises usually at night, we tend to associate it with the dark. But we tend to forget that, even in the dark sky, it is a body fully illuminated by the sun, so we have to take that into account. It is impossible to correctly expose the moon and the sky/earth at the same time, as the relative brightness of both exceeds the dynamic range of any commercial camera we can use. That doesn’t mind if we can turn that on our benefit. In this picture the full moon (#2) is completely overexposed, but we can make the defect less noticeable waiting for it to be behind a pale cloud. The cloud blurs the light and progressively extends the light to the sky, so instead of having a full perfect white circle in a dark sky we have a degraded light from white to dark blue. If we had exposed the moon correctly, that would have been the only object visible in the picture.

Also, in this picture the reflection (#3) takes a great importance. In order to get the moon perfectly round in the water we had to wait for two things to happen: The first one, obvious, is the moon to raise enough over the horizon to reflect from our angle of seeing. The second, less obvious, is to wait until there were no wind or currents in the water, as both of them tend to perturb the surface and produce elongated reflections. The first condition eventually happened, and we were lucky that the second happened for a few minutes, enough to take the picture. The surface was so still that even the brightest star (#3) reflected enough to be captured.

According to the composition, a few points are worth noticing. First one is the horizon (#1). In any landscape photography it is compulsory that it is perfectly leveled horizontal. In this case it looks a little bit inclined to the left because of the mountains in the right part, but if you look closely in the left part of the horizon it is perfectly horizontal. Of course this can be corrected on Photoshop later but at the cost of losing a portion of the external part of the photograph. The best leveled the camera is the less picture you will lose correcting it. A more subtle topic is where to put the horizon. The rule of thirds says that it should be in the upper or lower third of the picture but this is one of the cases when we decide to avoid the rule on purpose and center it. The reason for this is symmetry. We want to capture the sky and the moon, but also its reflection, so putting it in the middle of the picture makes a good symmetry between upper and lower parts. If we didn’t have had the reflection, the composition would have been boring and still.

Finally, in order to complete the composition, some bushes were included on the left side in order to frame the composition. This adds a little bit of naturalness to a picture that could be rather still and mathematical, and also breaks the symmetry to increase the force of the composition.

General advice to take any night picture is to take care of the white balance. At night there is no “correct” white balance, so choosing the one that feels more natural is a good recommendation. Also, knowing that night pictures tend to be noisier that their diurnal counterparts, not sharpening until the last moment and doing it smartly is also a good advice in order to not increase it and make it even more noticeable.

What do you think? Do you have any advice into night photography? Or perhaps any observation to make? Comment and share your mind with us.

Hello World

Welcome to this little place, my little place.

Beginnings are always complicated, and the first post in a new blog is a good example of that. I have had other blogs in the past, as a little blackboard where I used to put my thoughts in that moment and speak freely about whatever crossed my mind. But those blogs never had a focus on them, a continuous topic to elaborate or grow; they were just an amalgamation of topics with little to no relation between them. But this time is different. This time the focus is clear: photography.

People tend to create blogs about the topics that they most like, personally or professionally. This is a personal blog. Photography is not my job, and I have never studied it seriously, with a teacher. But it has been my hobby for the past 10 years, first as a “kid” playing with a limited compact camera while photographing everything my eye caught, and after that as a “grown up” in photography, trying to learn with the help of my reflex camera. Now, with all my experience on my back and with many hours of theory and practice in the field, I jump to the other side of the internet again, not consuming the knowledge and images other produce, but creating and sharing my own.

My intention is to focus not only in my own personal work, as many photographers do, but also in the knowledge behind it. I want to show my work, of course, as the best picture hidden in the depths of a hard disk is worth almost nothing. But I also want to share what makes my work special to me, what are the tricks behind them that you usually don’t see, but make the picture the way it is. I also want to compile and combine all knowledge I have been accumulating in the last years, as for example tricks or technical but useful data, so learning people can have all of it in the same place instead of having to be wandering from one place to another searching as I had to do (with the aggravated problem of remembering something you saw some months/years ago but you already don’t remember well). Right now, this looks like a long and hard enterprise; I wish I will be able to conclude it…

…But if not, at least the journey, wherever it leads, will be as interesting as the goal, and if I don’t manage to get all I want, at least whatever I manage to offer you I hope is worth enough to satisfy your curiosity (in the best case) or necessity(in the worst one).

So… It’s time for a new beginning!